The Use Of Opioids

The use of opioids for medical purposes, but without supervision by health professionals and any use of non-medical indications, can lead to severe consequences with the development of dependence. It is characterized by an extremely strong incentive to continue taking opioids, developing tolerance when it is necessary to increase the dose to achieve the initial effect, and physical dependence, the severity of which increases with increasing dosage and duration of use.
Dependence on opioids is rapidly increasing. Heroin is the most commonly used substance, the use of opium is rare. The frequency of dependence on prescription opioid analgesics, such as morphine and oxycodone, increases with a certain increase in the proportion of people who use them for legal medical purposes. In addition, many people find that the use of opioids allows them to tolerate what they consider an intolerable stress of life.

Patients with chronic pain who need long-term use should not be considered addicts, although they may have some problems with tolerance and physical dependence. Opioids cause cross tolerance, so patients can replace one drug with another. In people with developed tolerance, the symptoms of drug use can be expressed slightly, they are able to function normally in everyday life, but getting a drug is a constant problem for them. Tolerance to the various effects of these drugs often develops unevenly. For example, heroin users may be highly tolerant of the euphoric and lethal effects of heroin, but they have narrowed pupils and constipation. You can buy Opioids online without prescription as well. ( )


Symptoms of opioid dependence:

Acute intoxication (overdose) is characterized by euphoria, tidal, pruritus (especially for morphine), miosis, drowsiness, lowering of frequency and depth of breathing, hypotension, bradycardia, lowering of body temperature.

It is possible to presume the presence of physical dependence if the patient produces 3 or more injections of opioids per day, fresh injections are torn, there are signs and signs of withdrawal, or morphine glucon-ronide is detected in urine (heroin is bio transformed into morphine, conjugated with glucuronide and excreted). Since heroin is often inhaled, a nasal septum can be perforated. There is one medicine which is the best of all opioids called OxyContin or OxiContin.

The withdrawal syndrome usually includes symptoms and signs of hyperactivity of the central nervous system. The severity of the syndrome increases with the increase in the dose of opioids and the duration of dependence. Symptoms of withdrawal begin to appear 4 hours after taking the drug, and for heroin reach a peak after 72 hours. Against the background of anxiety associated with the desire for a drug, breathing should be increased at rest (> 16 breaths per minute), usually with yawning, sweating, lacrimation and rhinorrhea. Other symptoms include mydriasis, piloection (goosebumps), tremors, muscle twitchings, hot flashes and colds, muscle pains, anorexia. The withdrawal syndrome in patients taking methadone (has a longer half-life) develops more slowly and externally less painfully than with heroin abolition, although patients can describe it as more severe.


Complications of heroin addiction are associated with unsanitary drug introduction, characteristic features of the drug, overdose or behavior in the state of drug intoxication. The main complications concern pulmonary, bone and nervous systems; possible the development of hepatitis, immunological changes.

There may be aspiration pneumonitis, pneumonia, lung abscess, septic pulmonary embolism, atelectasis. It may develop pulmonary fibrosis due to talc granulomatosis, if tableted opioid analgesics are injected. Chronic heroin addiction leads to a decrease in the vital capacity of the lungs and to an easy or moderate decrease in diffusion capacity. These effects are different from pulmonary edema, which can develop with heroin injection. Many heroin users smoke one pack of cigarettes a day or more, which makes them particularly susceptible to various pulmonary infections.

There may be viral hepatitis A, B, C. The combination of viral hepatitis and often significant alcohol consumption may be important in the large occurrence of hepatic dysfunction.

The most frequent osteomuscular complication is osteomyelitis (especially the lumbar spine), possibly as a result of hematogenous spread of microorganisms as a result of non-sterile injections.